WHAT IS PERIODONTICS?
- Periodontitis means ” inflammation around the tooth” – it is a serious gum infection that damages the soft tissue and bone that supports the tooth.
- All periodontal diseases, including periodontitis, are infections which affect the periodontium . The periodontium are the tissues around a tooth, tissues that support the tooth.
- With periodontitis, the alveolar bone around the teeth is slowly and progressively lost. Microorganisms, such as bacteria, stick to the surface of the tooth and multiply – an overactive immune system reacts with inflammation.
- Untreated periodontitis will eventually result in tooth loss, and may increase the risk of stroke, heart attack and other health problems.
WHAT ARE THE TYPES OF PERIODONTAL DISEASES?
Here are the types of Periodontal Diseases:
- Chronic periodontitis – It is the most common type, affecting mostly adults.
- Aggressive periodontitis – It usually begins in childhood or early adulthood and affects only a small number of people.
- Necrotizing periodontal disease- It is characterized by the death of gum tissue, tooth ligaments and supporting bone caused by lack of blood supply (necrosis), resulting in severe infection.
WHAT ARE THE SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF PERIODONTAL DISEASES?
Here are the signs and symptoms of Periodontics:
- Swollen or puffy gums
- Bright red, dusky red or purplish gums
- Gums that feel tender when touched
- Gums that bleed easily
- Gums that pull away from your teeth (recede), making your teeth look longer than normal
- New spaces developing between your teeth
- Pus between your teeth and gums
- Bad breath
- Loose teeth
- Painful chewing
- A change in the way your teeth fit together when you bite.
WHAT ARE THE CAUSES OF PERIODONTICS?
Here are the causes of Periodontics:
- Plaque accumulation on your teeth.
- Plaque can harden under your gumline into tartar (calculus) if it stays on your teeth. Tartar is more difficult to remove and it’s filled with bacteria.
- Ongoing gum inflammation can cause periodontitis, eventually causing pockets to develop between your gums and teeth that fill with plaque, tartar and bacteria.
WHAT ARE THE RISK FACTORS OF PERIODONTAL DISEASE?
Here are the Risk factors of Periodontal Disease:
- Poor oral health habits
- Smoking or chewing tobacco
- Older age
- Hormonal changes, such as those related to pregnancy or menopause
- Substance abuse
- Inadequate nutrition, including vitamin C deficiency
- Certain medications that cause dry mouth or gum changes
- Conditions that cause decreased immunity, such as leukemia, HIV/AIDS and cancer treatment
- Certain diseases, such as diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis and Crohn’s disease.
HOW CAN PERIODONTICS BE TREATED?
Here are the measures that can be taken to treat Periodontics:
- Initial treatment– It is important to remove plaque and calculus (tartar) to restore periodontal health.
- Medications– Prescription antimicrobial mouth rinse, Antibiotic gel, Oral antibiotics – either in capsule or tablet form and are taken orally.
- Advanced periodontics– Flap surgery, Bone and tissue grafts.